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As the genetic base out-of salinity threshold is actually polygenic which will be mediated from the myriad of emotional responses hence non-invasive high throughput real time spectral imaging can be used for connection degree out-of emotional and you may biochemical faculties/incidents. Particularly means within the rice for salinity reaction studies has shown genomic places on the more chromosomes as well as their relationship with assorted some time serving lines of salinity. For example, chromosome step three and you will chromosome step 1 try firmly with the very early gains reaction and you can dealing with ionic be concerned from the very early increases phase by the alter inside fluorescence shift, correspondingly (Malachy ainsi que al. 2015). Therefore it may be determined that one another intrusive and you can low-invasive means keeps its particular positives and negatives regarding spatial variability away from salt shipment, precision control and you will overseeing within the hydroponics and you may absolute soil system, weather interference, water manage, floor and you will h2o medium, appropriateness to have seedling, reproductive and you may vegetables picking stage etcetera. For this reason, a certain phenotyping methods will be registered according to the needs, genetic characteristics and you may quantum of the reproduction traces, technical and you can financial feasibility aside from the scale and rapidity off testing.
Through an F2 population derived from salt tolerant mutant and sensitive genotype, Zhang et al. (1995) found that enhanced salt tolerance was governed by a major tolerant gene which showed incomplete dominance. By using a doubled haploid population Prasad et al. (2000) mapped 7 QTLs for tolerance to salinity stress at seed germination and seedling stages. (2001) revealed that the QTLs for Na and K uptake were found on different rice chromosomes. Lin et al. (2004) through a cross Nona Bokra (salt tolerant) x Koshihikari (sensitive) varieties detected 3 QTLs on chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 accounting for the number of survival days of seedlings under salt stress. Later in the same mapping population, Ren et al. (2005) discovered a QTL SKC1 accounting for about 40% phenotypic variation in shoot for the K mining ability under salt stress. Takehisa et al. (2004) also reported QTLs on chromosomes 2, 3 and 7 for stable tolerance to saline flooded conditions through backcross-inbred lines derived from Nipponbare (moderately salt-tolerant variety, as recurrent parent) and Kasalath (salt sensitive). From the mapping population derived from salt-tolerant japonica rice (Jiucaiqing) and sensitive indica variety (IR26), Wang et al. (2012) mapped 6 large effect QTLs and concluded that one QTL caused decreased Na + concentration in shoots which could be a strong candidate gene for ) located two QTLs viz. qST1 and qST3 respectively on chromosomes 1 and 3 for seedling stage tolerance through RILs developed from Milyang 23 x Gihobyeo cross.
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Am) mapped a major QTL for multiple salt tolerance parameters on chromosome 8 and three other major QTLs for Cl ion concentration through F2–3 mapping population derived from CSR27 (tolerant) X MI48 (sensitive) cross. Subsequently through RILs derived from the same population, 8 significant QTLs were mapped on chromosomes 1, 8 and 12 including an important QTL for higher spikelet fertility at reproductive stage salt tolerance on chromosome 8 (Pandit et al. 2010). In another study, five major QTLs with considerable effects for root and shoot traits under salt stress hinge username were reported (Sabouri and Sabouri 2008). Ahmadi and Fotokian (2011) identified a major QTL on chromosome 1 conferring higher K + mining ability under salt stress. Ghomi et al. (2013) conducted the QTL analysis of physiological traits related to salt tolerance using F2:4 population developed from a cross between a tolerant variety (Gharib) and a sensitive variety (Sepidroud) and reported 41 QTLs for 12 physiological traits under salinity stress. In other studies, many new QTLs for seedling stage tolerance have been mapped in rice (Alam et al. 2011; Lee et al. 2007; Pushpara). Through an association mapping involving 347 global rice germplasm lines, Cui et al. (2015) discovered a total of 40 markers of which 25 and 15 were associated with tolerance to salinity and alkalinity, respectively wherein 3 markers were common for both salinity and alkalinity stress tolerance. Molla et al. (2015) studied a total of 220 salt responsive genes and employed 19 primer sets to detect polymorphism across tolerant and sensitive groups and revealed the utility of salt responsive candidate gene based SSR (cgSSR) markers for distinguishing tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Recently, Bizimana et al. (2017) mapped 20 new QTLs located on chromosomes 1,2,4,6,8, 9 and 12 in a novel source Hasawi, a Saudi landrace which could diversify the nature of salt tolerance. (2017) identified 11 loci on chromosomes 1,5,6,11 and 12 containing 22 important SNPs conferring tolerance at seed germination stages and concluded that japonica types have better salt tolerance than indica types. Regarding wild relatives of rice, a study conducted in Oryza rufipogon identified four QTL clusters located on chromosomes 6,7,9 and 10 explaining 19 to 26% phenotypic variation for root and shoot traits under salt stress (Tian et al. 2011). Kaur et al. (2016) have performed a meta-analysis of many known genes for controlling salt tolerance in rice to prioritize candidate genes. In our overall compilation, maximum number of salt tolerance associated QTLs are reported on chromosome 1, followed by 3, 4, 6, 7, 2 and 9 (Additional file 1 Table S1).